Kamis, 24 April 2014

The Origin Of The Name Of The City In Indonesia


1.    BANDA ACEH

Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city in the province of Nangroe Aceh Darussalam, the island of Sumatra, with the elevation of 21 meters. The city was originally named Kutaraja, and determined as the provincial capital in 1956. Kuta Raja means “City of the King”, in reference to the founding of the Aceh Sultanate from Champa origins. Later its name was changed to Bandar Aceh Darussalam or popularly known as Banda Aceh, with the first part of the name coming from the Persian bandar meaning “port” or “haven”. It is also referred to as the “port to Mecca”, as Islam first arrived in Aceh before spreading throughout Southeast Asia.

There are some historical destinations in Banda Aceh that worth to be visited. Those historical sites are remain the historical in past times. For instance: The House Of Cut Nyak Dien. Cut Nyak Dien was an Indonesian’s woman revolutionist from Aceh. The house is a replica of the heroine Cut Nyak Dhien House, from the Aceh War. 

The Great Mosque of Baiturrahman. Baiturrahman is a great mosque located at the heart of Banda Aceh, The mosque with a very fascinating architecture. This mosque is incredibly standing over times. This magnificent mosque had prove its existence when the Tsunami came in 2004, and the mosque were remain exist elegantly on the ground. 

Other destinations in Banda Aceh are: Gunongan and Taman Putroe Phang, Graveyard in Bitay Village, The Museum Aceh, Indonesian Airline Monument, Ulee Lheue-Banda Aceh. Moreover, after the Tsunami tragedy in 2004, there are still some ruin that finally become the destination tour regarding the tragedy on 2004. The Tsunami Tour shown Fisherman boat on an inhabitant house, Floating Electric Generator Ship and Tsunami Monument & Garden


2.    BANDUNG


The official name of the city was Bandoeng during the days of Dutch East Indies.
The earliest reference to the city dates back to 1488, although archaeological findings suggest a type of Homo erectus species had long previously lived on the banks of the Cikapundung River and around the old lake of Bandung During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) opened plantations in the Bandung area. In 1786, a supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang and Cirebon was constructed. In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte, French Emperor and conqueror of much of Europe including the Netherlands and its colonies, (before his ultimate downfall at Waterloo in 1815) ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to improve the defensive systems of Java to protect against the British in India. Daendels built a road, stretching approximately 1,000 km (620 mi) from the west to the east coast of Java, passing through Bandung. In 1810, the road was laid down in Bandung and was named De Groote Postweg (or the 'main post road'), the present-day site of Asia-Afrika Street. Under Daendels' orders, R.A. Wiranatakusumah II, the chief administration of the Bandung regency at that time, moved its office from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells (sumur Bandung), the present-day site of the city square (alun-alun). He built his dalem (palace), masjid agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (public-official meeting place) in the classical orientation. The pendopo faces Tangkuban Perahu mountain, which was believed to have a mystical ambience.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was completed, boosting light industry in Bandung. Chinese from outside the city flocked in, to help run facilities, services and selling vendor machines. The area around the train station is still recognisable as the old Chinatown district. In 1906, Bandung was given the status of gemeente (municipality) and then twenty years later stadsgemeente (city municipality).

In the beginning of the 1920s, the Dutch East Indies government made plans to move the capital of Dutch East Indies from Batavia to Bandung. Accordingly, during this decade, the Dutch colonial government started building military barracks, the central government building (Gouvernments Bedrijven, the present-day Gedung Sate) and other government buildings. However, this plan, was cut short by World War II, after which the Dutch were not able to re-establish their colony.

The fertile area of the Parahyangan Mountains surrounding Bandung supports productive tea plantations. In the nineteenth century, Franz Junghuhn introduced the cinchona (kina) plant. With its cooler elevated landscape, surrounded by major plantations, Bandung became an exclusive European resort area. Rich plantation owners visited the city on weekends, attracting ladies and business people from the capital, Batavia. Braga Street grew into a promenade street with cafes, restaurants and boutique shops. Two art-deco style hotels, Savoy Homann and Preanger, were built in the vicinity of the Concordia Society, a club house for the wealthy with a large ballroom and a theatre. The nickname "Parijs van Java" was given to the city.

After the Indonesian Independence in 1945, Bandung was determined as the capital of West Java province. During the 1945–1949 independence struggle against the Dutch when they wanted to reclaim their colonies, Bandung was one of the heaviest battle places. At the end of World War II nearly no Dutch troops were in Java. Before restoring Dutch sovereignty, the British took a military hold on Java's major cities. The British military commander set an ultimatum for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave the city. In response, on 24 March 1946, much of the southern part of Bandung was deliberately set alight as the combatants left; an event known as the Bandung Lautan Api or 'Bandung Sea of Flame'. 

In 1955, the first Asian-African Conference – also known as the Bandung Conference – was held in Bandung by President Soekarno, attended by head of states representing twenty-nine countries and colonies from Asia and Africa.The conference venue was at the Gedung Merdeka, the former Concordia Society building. The conference announced 10 points of declaration on world peace promotion and oppositions against colonialism, known as the Declaration of Bandung, which followed by wave of nationalism movements around the globe and remapped the world politics.The conference was also the first international conference of people of color in the history of mankind. Richard Wright in his book, The Color Curtain, captured the epic meanings of the conference for people of color around the world.

In 2005, the concurrent Asian-African Conference also taking partly in Bandung, bringing world figures such as President of Indonesia Susilo B. Yudhoyono, President of China Hu Jintao, Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh, President of South Africa Thabo Mbeki, President of Nigeria Obasanjo, and countless other luminaries. 

In 1987, the city boundary was expanded with the Greater Bandung (Bandung Raya) plan; a relocation of higher concentration development outside the city in an attempt to dilute some of population in the old city. During its development, however, the city core is often uprooted, old faces are torn down, lot sizes regrouped, and what was idyllic residence is bustling chain supermarkets and rich banks. 


3.    PALEMBANG

In ancient times, the area of South Sumatra, Jambi Province and part of a unique wilderness and beautiful. Dozens of large and small rivers originating from the Bukit Barisan, the mountains around Mount Dempo, and the Lake Ranau flows in the region. Thus, the area is known as the Batanghari Nine. Large river that flows in the region including Komering River, River Lematang, Ogan River, Rawas River, and several river which empties into the River Musi. There are two Musi River which empties into the sea in the adjacent area, namely that through the Musi River in Palembang and the Musi River Banyuasin slightly to the north. 

Because many large rivers, lowland circular from the area of Jambi, South Sumatra, Lampung province to an area that has many small lakes. The origin of small lakes that are flooded swamp ocean tide. While the city of Palembang, known now by history is a river island in Malay. The small island was a hill named Bukit Seguntang Mahameru. 

The uniqueness of the place other than rimbanya dense forests and many small lakes, and many flowers that grow fast, as long as the area was inhabited by a goddess with the ladies in her ladies. Goddard was called Princess Goda. Actually, she named Princess Ayu Sundari.Dewi and her ladies were ladies in the jungle forest inhabit, slope, and the peak of Bukit Barisan and the islands now known as Malaysia. They liked to come to the area Batanghari Nine to mingle and bathe in the lake, crystal clear rivers, or coastal area, ramps, and length. 

Because of the large river which empties into the sea, the voyagers of that era easily fit through the rivers to the deep, even to the foot of the mountain, which was fertile and prosperous area. Then there was communication between the traders, including traders from China with the local population. The area became crowded by locals with trading between dealers. Consequently, the goddesses of heaven feel annoyed and look elsewhere. 

Meanwhile, many people come around the Musi River to make a home there. Because of South Sumatra is a swampy lowland, the inhabitants make a house called the raft.
It was Hill Seguntang Mahameru be the center of human attention as the soil is fertile and various interest bodies in the area. Malay River Hill Seguntang Mahameru place is also famous.
Therefore, people who have lived in the Malay River, especially the town of Palembang, now calling themselves as residents of Sungai Melayu, which later turned into a pen  sat Malay.
According to the old Malay language, the word means the lowland valley which flooded many, sometimes drowning sometimes dry. Thus, the population of the highlands who want to Kilkenny will often say to me  Lembang. So did the immigrants who entered the River Musi said it would to Lembang. 

Once when Princess Ayu Sundari and retinue were still in Bukit Seguntang Mahameru, there is a ship that crashed in South Sumatra coast. Three of the sisters there was the king's son Iskandar Zulkarnain. They survived the crash and stranded on Mount Seguntang Mahameru.
They were greeted Princess Ayu Sundari. The eldest son Raja Iskandar Zulkarnain, Sang Sapurba then married to Princess Ayu Sundari and his two brothers married to the daughter's family. 

Because Hill Seguntang Mahameru dwells Malay River, then the Sapurba and his wife claim to be a Malay. Their offspring later developed and participate in local activities Lembang. Lembang name more famous.Then when people want to Lembang always said it would be to Kilkenny.The word pa in old Malay language indicates the place or location.Economic growth is increasingly crowded. Musi River and the River Musi Banyuasin be a strong point known as  trade to other countries. Lembang name was changed to Palembang.

4.    MAGELANG